#Scientific Reports

Safely delivering radiation to cancer patients in a 'FLASH'

Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have shown for the first time the potential for linear induction accelerators (LIAs) to deliver effective, targeted doses of "FLASH" radiation to cancer patients. The new technique selectively kills cancer cells with minimal damage to healthy cells. The approach is outlined in a Scientific Reports paper.
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Incredible Dinosaur Treasure Trove in Italy Rewrites History, Geography, and Evolution

A dinosaur trove in Italy rewrites the history, geography, and evolution of the ancient Mediterranean area. Italy is not exactly renowned for dinosaurs. In comparison to its excellent artistic and archaeological heritage, dinosaur fossils are very rare. Not surprisingly, the discovery of the first isolated remains from these animals, in the early 1990s, generated quite an excitement, but were shortly after considered nothing more than an exception to a general rule. During the reign of dinosaurs, between 230 and 66 million years ago, the ancient Mediterranean area would have been hard to map, formed by countless small islands far from all major mainlands – Europe, Africa, and Asia – unsuitable to sustain large animals like the dinosaurs. Or so we believed.
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Presentation of the first personalized virtual planning and navigation system for craniosynostosis surgery

Hospital Gregorio Marañón and Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) have presented a navigation system that will improve planning, precision, and personalisation in surgical correction of craniosynostosis (a congenital defect causing cranial malformations). Developed by doctors and engineers from both institutions, it combines surgical navigation, three-dimensional photography, and augmented reality so that surgeons can estimate and correct the position of bone fragments during surgery.

Vaping Can Trigger Gene Changes in Cells

THURSDAY, Dec.2, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- For those who think vaping is safer than smoking, think again. A new study warns that vaping triggers the same gene regulation changes that smoking does, so it may raise the risk of cancer and other serious diseases. "Our study, for the first time,...

Student solves decades long mystery regarding light and black holes

In the vicinity of a black hole, space curves so much that light rays are deflected, and very nearby light can be deflected so much that it travels several times around the black hole. (CREDIT: Creative Commons) In the vicinity of black holes, space is so warped that even light...

High temperatures due to global warming will be dramatic even for tardigrades

Global warming, a major aspect of climate change, is already causing a wide range of negative impacts on many habitats of our planet. It is thus of the utmost importance to understand how rising temperatures may affect animal health and welfare. A research group from Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen has just shown that tardigrades are very vulnerable to long-term high temperature exposures. Animals, which in their desiccated state are best known for their extraordinary tolerance to extreme environments.

Artificial intelligence helps speed up ecological surveys

Scientists at EPFL, the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and Wageningen University & Research have developed a new deep-learning model for counting the number of seals in aerial photos that is considerably faster than doing it by hand. With this new method, valuable time and resources could be saved which can be used to further study and protect endangered species.

Pandemic mental health and Eurasia’s oldest jewellery

The latest science news, in brief. You have full access to this article via your institution. Mammoth pendant could be Eurasia’s oldest jewellery. A 41,500-year-old pendant carved from a piece of a woolly-mammoth tusk could be the oldest known example of decorated jewellery in Eurasia made by humans, according to archaeologists.

In the nano-aquarium: Infrared super-resolution microscopy of living cells

(Nanowerk News) Everybody likes gazing at fish in an aquarium and marveling at details such as their colorful skin patterns. In much the same way, physicists at LMU have now developed a sort of nano-aquarium for cells and bacteria (Scientific Reports, "Infrared‐spectroscopic, dynamic near‐field microscopy of living cells and nanoparticles in water").

eDNA Enables Scientists to Explore Piscine Diversity in the Amazon Without Catching Fish

A scientific expedition in the Javari River basin on the border between Brazil, Colombia and Peru has shown use of environmental DNA sequencing to be feasible to investigate fish diversity in the Amazon. The eDNA method consists of extracting molecules of DNA present in water samples and identifying the species to which they belong by means of genetic markers.

Omicron shows need for more global vaccine advocacy

On Nov. 26, the World Health Organization (WHO) received a report from South Africa that a new variant of SARS-CoV-2, known as Omicron, was detected. The WHO designated the variant as a “variant of concern,” mostly due to certain mutations which may confer a degree of resistance against existing treatments and vaccinations. This terrifying new development in the COVID-19 saga is just another reason why the world needs to work together to ensure every single person has access to vaccines, instead of just stockpiling them in rich countries.

Role of interferon type I-driven responses associated with disease control in COVID-19

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over 260 million cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) along with five million deaths. It has affected different parts of the world differently. A new paper from Pakistan, which appeared in the journal Scientific Reports, examines the utility of type I interferon responses in predicting the clinical outcome in COVID-19.