Mechanisms of human agency, namely, self-regulation, self-direction, and online learning self-efficacy, are situated in the literature as fundamental to student persistence in an online course (Rovai, 2003; Stephen et al., 2020, Tinto, 1993). Zimmerman (1998, 2002) described a self-regulated student as an active participant in the learning process who sets goals, employs and adjusts strategies to assist them in achieving their goals, engages in self-assessment activities, manages their time, and attributes results to behaviors or actions. Active learning, goal setting, and self-evaluation also describe behaviors and actions associated with a student who is self-directed. Knowles (1975) explained that self-directed students also autonomously initiate instructional activities, determine their learning needs, and ascertain the resources needed to accomplish their goals. To engage in the processes of self-regulation and self-direction, students need to have a high level of self-efficacy, which is a motivational disposition that supports persistence by sustaining intention and long-term planning, and encouraging self-correcting actions (Bandura, 1997).