Conventional chemotherapy is still of great utility in oncology and rationally constructing combinations with it remains a top priority. Drug-induced mitochondrial apoptotic priming, measured by dynamic BH3 profiling (DBP), has been shown in multiple cancers to identify drugs that promote apoptosis in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that we could use DBP to identify drugs that would render cancers more sensitive to conventional chemotherapy. We found that targeted agents that increased priming of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor cells resulted in increased sensitivity to chemotherapy in vitro. To assess whether targeted agents that increase priming might enhance the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in vivo as well, we carried out an efficacy study in a PC9 xenograft mouse model. The BH3 mimetic navitoclax, which antagonizes BCL-xL, BCL-w, and BCL-2, consistently primed NSCLC tumors in vitro and in vivo. The BH3 mimetic venetoclax, which electively antagonizes BCL-2, did not. Combining navitoclax with etoposide significantly reduced tumor burden compared to either single agent, while adding venetoclax to etoposide had no effect on tumor burden. Next, we assessed priming of primary patient NSCLC tumor cells on drugs from a clinically relevant oncology combination screen (CROCS). Results confirmed for the first time the utility of BCL-xL inhibition by navitoclax in priming primary NSCLC tumor cells and identified combinations that primed further. This is a demonstration of the principle that DBP can be used as a functional precision medicine tool to rationally construct combination drug regimens that include BH3 mimetics in solid tumors like NSCLC.