#Ncrnas

ScienceScience Now

Polycomb-group recruitment to a Drosophila target gene is the default state that is inhibited by a transcriptional activator

Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that maintain the transcriptional repression of target genes following their initial repression by transcription factors. PcG target genes are repressed in some cells, but active in others. Therefore, a mechanism must exist by which PcG proteins distinguish between the repressed and active states and only assemble repressive chromatin environments at target genes that are repressed. Here, we present experimental evidence that the repressed state of a Drosophila PcG target gene, giant (gt), is not identified by the presence of a repressor. Rather, de novo establishment of PcG-mediated silencing at gt is the default state that is prevented by the presence of an activator or coactivator, which may inhibit the catalytic activity of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2).
Picture for Polycomb-group recruitment to a Drosophila target gene is the default state that is inhibited by a transcriptional activator
Sciencedocwirenews.com

Non-coding RNAs: the extensive and interactive regulators of the blood-brain barrier permeability

RNA Biol. 2021 Jul 9. doi: 10.1080/15476286.2021.1950465. Online ahead of print. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which controls permeability into and out of the nervous system, is a tightly connected, structural, and functional separation between the central nervous system (CNS) and circulating blood. CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke, meningitis, and brain cancers, often develop with the increased BBB permeability and further leads to irreversible CNS injury. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are functional RNA molecules that generally lack the coding abilities but can actively regulate the mRNA expression and function through different mechanisms. Various types of ncRNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are highly expressed in brain microvascular endothelial cells and are potential mediators of BBB permeability. Here, we summarized the recent research progress on miRNA, lncRNA, and circRNA roles regulating the BBB permeability in different CNS diseases. Understanding how these ncRNAs affect the BBB permeability shall provide important therapeutic insights into the prevention and control of the BBB dysfunction.
WildlifeNature.com

A regulatory network involving Rpo, Gac and Rsm for nitrogen-fixing biofilm formation by Pseudomonas stutzeri

Biofilm and nitrogen fixation are two competitive strategies used by many plant-associated bacteria; however, the mechanisms underlying the formation of nitrogen-fixing biofilms remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the roles of multiple signalling systems in the regulation of biofilm formation by root-associated diazotrophic P. stutzeri A1501. Physiological analysis, construction of mutant strains and microscale thermophoresis experiments showed that RpoN is a regulatory hub coupling nitrogen fixation and biofilm formation by directly activating the transcription of pslA, a major gene involved in the synthesis of the Psl exopolysaccharide component of the biofilm matrix and nifA, the transcriptional activator of nif gene expression. Genetic complementation studies and determination of the copy number of transcripts by droplet digital PCR confirmed that the regulatory ncRNA RsmZ serves as a signal amplifier to trigger biofilm formation by sequestering the translational repressor protein RsmA away from pslA and sadC mRNAs, the latter of which encodes a diguanylate cyclase that synthesises c-di-GMP. Moreover, RpoS exerts a braking effect on biofilm formation by transcriptionally downregulating RsmZ expression, while RpoS expression is repressed posttranscriptionally by RsmA. These findings provide mechanistic insights into how the Rpo/Gac/Rsm regulatory networks fine-tune nitrogen-fixing biofilm formation in response to the availability of nutrients.
Picture for A regulatory network involving Rpo, Gac and Rsm for nitrogen-fixing biofilm formation by Pseudomonas stutzeri
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