Patrick Lloyd McCrory (born October 17, 1956) is an American businessman, politician, and radio host who served as the 74th Governor of North Carolina from 2013 to 2017. Previously, he was the 53rd Mayor of Charlotte from 1995 to 2009 and served on the United States Homeland Security Advisory Council from 2002 to 2006. McCrory was the Republican nominee for Governor of North Carolina in the 2008 general election and was defeated by Lieutenant Governor Bev Perdue, the Democratic nominee. After the 2008 election loss, McCrory returned to the private sector. On January 31, 2012, he launched his second campaign for North Carolina Governor, winning the election later that year. McCrory became the first Mayor of Charlotte to win the state's highest office, as well as the first Republican North Carolina Governor since 1993. In 2013, McCrory signed a repeal of the Racial Justice Act of 2009, which allowed the use of broad statistics as evidence of racial bias during the appeal of a death sentence. In 2016, McCrory came to national attention after signing the Public Facilities Privacy & Security Act ("HB2"). Among other provisions, HB2 prevented local governing bodies from establishing their own anti-discrimination statutes. It declared that in government buildings, individuals may use only the restrooms that correspond to the sex on their birth certificates, preventing transgender people who have not altered their birth certificates from using the restroom consistent with their gender identity. The United States Department of Justice, in addition to several private citizens, filed lawsuits against McCrory and the state regarding HB2. Over 100 corporations voiced their opposition to HB2, notably to the elements that limited protections to LGBT individuals. Economists have estimated that HB2 negatively impacted GDP in the state of North Carolina by an amount between $450 and $630 million, along with over a thousand new jobs. In 2016, McCrory lost his reelection campaign to Democrat Roy Cooper, the North Carolina Attorney General. On election night, the race was too close to call. The McCrory campaign filed election protests alleging that voter fraud helped Cooper in 50 counties. On December 5, 2016, McCrory conceded the race to Cooper. HB2 was later repealed on March 30, 2017. McCrory later made unsubstantiated claims of voter fraud in connection with the 2016 election.