Isaac Murphy (October 16, 1799 or 1802 – September 8, 1882) was a native of Pennsylvania, a teacher and lawyer who moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas with his wife and child in 1834. He continued to teach and also became active in politics. Murphy is best known as the only delegate to have repeatedly voted against secession at the second Arkansas Secession Convention in 1861. Having served in local offices and the State House, Murphy was elected as governor in a special election after the US Army occupied Arkansas in 1863 under President Abraham Lincoln. He is considered the first Reconstruction governor of Arkansas, as he was allowed to stay in office after the Reconstruction Acts were passed by Congress in 1867. Murphy was known for his fiscal restraint and a conciliatory attitude toward former Confederates.