Arthur Keith was a distinguished Scottish anatomist and anthropologist who made remarkable contribution in the study of human evolution. Born into a modest family with an agricultural background, he was interested his studies right from the childhood and graduated with a degree in medicine. He was strongly influenced by the works of Charles Darwin and decided to shift his focus to anthropology. According to Arthur Keith, the evolution of the human race was as per the evolutionary harvest of nature. He also shared views with regard to the evolution of human society arising from competition based on patriotism, resentment, revenge, morality, leadership, nationalism and so on. He wrote more than 500 publications in the area of human anatomy and human evolution. In his studies he also described cultural differences as a barrier to interbreeding among groups and introduced concepts like ‘in- group’ and ‘out- group’. Arthur Keith was regarded by many, as the ‘Father of Modern Nationalism’. His findings and ideas were well received in the field of anthropology, and he was knighted for his contributions to science.