Posted byDr. Donna L. Roberts
The consequences of an act affect the probability of its occurring again. – B. F. Skinner. Punishment refers to “a consequence that decreases the frequency or likelihood that a behavior will occur” (Santrok, 2003, p. 284). Like its counterpart, punishment can be further broken down by type. Punishment I, also referred to as Positive Punishment by some behaviorists, exists if a behavior decreases when it is followed by an aversive stimulus (Carlson, Miller, Heth, Donahoe & Martin, 2009; Santrock, 2003). Thus, with punishment, the behavior tendency is weakened, while with reinforcement it is strengthened.