Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences. Every culture throughout history devoted at least some time and resources to astronomical observations. There are clear advantages to understanding the positions of the stars and planets. It allowed ancient cultures to predict seasons, navigate over large distances, know when best to grow food, and understand animal migrations. Understanding the night sky was essential for the survival of humanity for thousands of years. However, numerous cultures also viewed the positions of the stars and planets as having a large influence over human affairs, from large scale events to individual lives. For a vast portion of human history, astronomy and astrology were viewed as the same subject, and it was not until astronomical observations by astronomers like Copernicus and Galileo that we began to see that these two subjects are very different from each other.